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Glossary terms

Domain statuses

ACTIVE
Registered domain available for any operation. This status identifies active domain names and is default for all domain names when they are first registered.
autoRenewPeriod
The 15 (fifteen) days immediately after the expiry of a domain.
BULK-TRANSFER
Transfer between two Registrars, or from one Registrar to one Maintainer, or from one Maintainer to one Registrar, of a considerable number of domains.
CANCELLED-REQUEST
Domain for which the Registry has received a valid LAR after which the Registrant has then requested cancellation. The domain is immediately available for re-assignment.
CHALLENGED
Domain challenged by a third party and not available for any changes by the Registrant. This status is for all domain names currently being challenged.
clientTransferProhibited
A constraint imposed by the Registrar to prevent the transfer of a domain name to another Registrar. The Registrar may only veto the change of Registrar if a notice, for said domain name, has been duly served by the competent authorities.
clientUpdateProhibited
Constraint imposed by the Registrar to stop a domain being changed. The only operation allowed is the removal of said constraint. The Registrar cannot impose this constraint to stop the Registrant from requesting the change of a domain if not for valid reasons.
DELETED
Domain that the Registry has deleted. DNS inactive. The domain is available for re-assignment.
EXPIRED-REQUEST
Domain for which the Registry has received a valid LAR but which was not completed by the Maintainer within the terms provided by the electronic form The domain is available for re-assignment.
GEOGRAPHIC
Domain part of a predefined geographical organization. Not assignable to third parties.
GRACE-PERIOD
Registered domain. The grace period is the 15 (fifteen) days immediately after a domain has expired and within which it can be renewed.
inactive/clientHold
Domain for which the Registrar has suspended operations and stopped any kind of change following the opening of judiciary proceedings on the domain relating to its use and/or assignment. The only operation allowed is removal from “clientHold” by the Registrar.
inactive/dnsHold
Registered domain that is not yet active because awaiting successful DNS configuration check. This status is attributed by default to all domains when they are first registered. The domain remains in this status for 30 (thirty) days after which if the DNS configuration check is still not successful the domain is deleted.
inactive/noRegistrar
A domain name for which the Registrar no longer has an active contract with the Registry or for which a "Change of Registrar” operation gave a negative result beyond theautoRenewPeriod. The domain name has reached the date in the “expire” field and retains this status for 60 (sixty) days. The only permitted operations are “Change of Registrar” (together with “Change of Registrant”, if required) by the Registrant and “domain name recovery” by the Registrar if the Registrar has an active contract with the Registry.
inactive/notRenewed
A domain name that has reached the date in the “expire” field and has not been renewed automatically due to insufficient credit on the part of the Registrar. Domain names in this status are recovered automatically as soon as the Registrar’s credit allows. The domain name retains this status for 30 (thirty) days. The only permitted operations are automatic recovery by the change system as soon as the Registrar’s credit allows and change of Registrar (together with “Change of Registrant”, if required) by the Registrant.
inactive/revoked
A domain name revoked by the Registry and not immediately available for free assignment.
inactive/serverHold
Domain that the Registry has stopped having any operations, maintaining as are all the data associated in the DBNA. The only operation allowed is for the Registry to remove it from “serverHold”.
inactive/toBeReassigned
A domain name for which a re- assignment or challenge procedure has been concluded successfully. The domain name can be registered within 30 (thirty) day only to the opposing party.
NO-PROVIDER
Registered domain. Operations allowed: recovery, cancellation or revoke via simple change by the Maintainer associated with the domain or via change of Maintainer and / or Registrant A domain can remain in this status until the annual expiry after which if none of the above mentioned operations have been made it goes into REDEMPTION-NO-PROVIDER
ok
Registered domain that is active and available for any operation
ok/noRegistrar
A domain name for which the Registrar has no active contract with the Registry. The domain name retains this status until the date in the expire field. The only permitted operation is the change of Registrar (together with a change of Registrant, if required) by the Registrant.
PENDING-CREATE
Domain being registered. This status identifies the domain names for which the Registry has received a valid and correct LAR.
PENDING-DELETE
Registered domain; no operation allowed. The period between the final cancellation of a domain (random procedure) from the Registry's DBNA which must take place within 5 (five) days.
pendingDelete/redemptionPeriod
Registered domain for which the Registrar has requested the cancellation on behalf of the Registrant. The only operation allowed: recovery by the same Registrar within 30 (thirty) days of its being moved into that status.
pendingTransfer
Domain currently undergoing a change of Registrar. The "old" Registrar can veto the change of Registrar only if it has received for that domain the legal authority to do so. The domain remains in this status for a maximum of 5 (five) days. If within this period the change of Registrar has not been explicitly annulled by the new Registrar or rejected by the old Registrar, it is automatically approved by the Registry.
pendingTransfer/Bulk
Domain currently undergoing a Bulk Transfer.
pendingUpdate
Domain for which a request to change authoritative nameservers has been made and is awaiting successful DNS configuration check. The domain remains in this status for a maximum of 5 (five) days. If within this period the DNS is not positively validated by the Registry, it is abandoned. The domain returns to its previous status.
REDEMPTION-NO-PROVIDER
Registered domain. Operations allowed: Recovery by simple change of Maintainer associated with the domain or via change of Maintainer. The domain can remain in this status for a maximum of 60 (sixty) days from the date of being put in this status. If during this period no recovery has been carried out, the domain goes into PENDING-DELETE.
REDEMPTION-PERIOD
Registered domain. Operations allowed: Recovery by simple change of Maintainer associated with the domain or via change of Maintainer. The domain can remain in this status for a maximum of 30 (thirty) days from the date of being put in this status. If during this period no recovery has been carried out, the domain goes into PENDING-DELETE.
REGISTRANT-HOLD
Registered domain for which the Registrant has requested the Registry to suspend operations maintaining the ownership of the assignment.
REGISTRANT-TRANSFER
Registered domain for which a change of Registrant is ongoing.
REGISTRAR-HOLD
Registered domain for which the Maintainer has requested the Registry to suspend operations following the opening of legal proceedings for the domain in relation to its use and/or assignment of the same.
REGISTRAR-LOCK
Registered domain for which the Maintainer has requested the Registry to stop any change of Maintainer or of any data in the DBNA associated with it, following the opening of legal proceedings for the domain in relation to its use and/or assignment of the same.
REJECTED-REQUEST
Domain for which the Registry has received an invalid LAR. The domain is immediately freely available.
RESERVED
Not registered domain that has been reserved for a particular Registrant.
REVOKED
Domain which the Registry has revoked the name and the domain is not immediately freely available.
serverDeleteProhibited
A constraint imposed by the Registry to prevent deletion of a domain name.
serverTransferProhibited
A constraint imposed by the Registry to prevent the transfer of domain to another Registrar.
serverUpdateProhibited
A constraint imposed by the Registry to prevent change of a domain name.
THIRDPARTY-HOLD
Registered domain for which the Registry has received a request for hold by the competent authorities, on which no operations are permitted.
TO-BE-REASSIGNED
Domain for which a reassignment or challenge has been successfully concluded. The domain can be registered within 30 (thirty) days only by the challenger.
unassignable
Domain not assignable to any Registrant

Technical terms

Authinfo
Code that univocally identifies a domain (it must be notified by the Registrar to the Registrant. The authinfo is indispensable in order to be able to execute all the operations on a domain.
Bulk (Transfer)
Transfer between two Registrars, or from one Registrar to one Maintainer, or from one Maintainer to one Registrar, of a considerable number of domains.
Electronic Form
Electronic form that Maintainer emails to complete any type of asynchronous operation.
Expire
Tag (field) identifying expiry date of a domain registered in the Database of Assigned Names.
First come first served
Domain names are assigned in terms of the chronological order in which requests are received.
IP address
Number that univocally identifies a device connected to the Internet in accordance with the IP (Internet Protocol) standard
Letter of Assumption of Responsibility
Letter of Assumption of Responsibility: paper document to send to the Registry to request a .it domain in an asynchronous way.
Maintenance
Administrative and technical operations relating to the management of a registered domain.
MNT tag
Maintainer tag (XYZ-MNT)
REG tag
Registrar tag (XYZ-REG)
Status
Current situation of a domain and its possible evolutions.

Acronyms

CNUCE
Center for Electronic Calculation for Italian universities. Until 1997 it was responsible for registering and maintaining Italian domains.
ccTLD
country code Top Level Domain. For Italy it is .it (ccTLD.it)
CENTR
Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries: an association of all the main European and international registries.
DBNA
Database of Assigned Names: electronic archive managed by the .it Registry where all data relative to .it domains are stored.
DNS
Domain Name System: system used for the conversion of domain names into IP addresses.
EPP
Extensible Provisioning Protocol: communication protocol for the synchronous registration of domains.
IANA
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority: international organization that assigns IP addresses.
ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers: international organization responsible for the interoperability, stability and security of the Internet
RFC
In computer network engineering, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a memorandum published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. Through the Internet Society, engineers and computer scientists may publish discourse in the form of an RFC, either for peer review or simply to convey new concepts, information, or (occasionally) engineering humor. The IETF adopts some of the proposals published as RFCs as Internet standards.
RIPE
Réseaux IP Européens: organization that assigns IP addresses in Europe.